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Additional background information






  • Distribution is the transport of electricity from the transmission system to the end user, which can be industrial, commercial or residential. Distribution happens on high-, medium- and low-voltage wires.
  • DSO stands for “Distribution System Operator” who oversees the distribution portion of the process.

  • The electric process consists of generation, transmission, distribution and supply.
  • An energy regulatory agency is an independent body that oversees transmission and distribution to ensure free competition among suppliers. These agencies make rules for the structure and operation of the market, issue licenses for the various activities in the energy market, and conduct hearings about complaints that arise.
  • GenCo stands for “ Generation Company” and is a company that owns and operates power plants.

  • Generation is the production of electricity.

  • Interconnectors are networks that connect different countries' electrical grids to each other.

  • ISO stands for “Independent System Operator” who is responsible for a state's transmission grid.

  • SCADA stands for “ Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition .” It is a system used to control and monitor electrical transmission.
  • Supply is the sale or resale of the electricity to customers.

  • TransCo stands for “ Transmission Company ” and is similar to a TSO, overseeing the transmission portion of the electrical process.
  • Transmission is the transport of electricity from the plants to the next stage, distribution. Transmission happens on extra-high voltage and high-voltage wires.

  • TSO stands for “Transmission System Operator. ” The TSO is responsible for the transmission part of the electric process—the extra high voltage and high voltage wires. They must operate and maintain this system.

  • Unbundling is the process of restructuring a utility so that the generation, transmission and distribution functions are separate.

Agency Acronyms & Links






  • ESM: ElektroStopanstvo na Makedonija
    (site under construction)
  • ERC: Energy Regulatory Commission


  • EPCG: Elektroprivreda Crne Gore
  • ERAM: Energy Regulatory Agency of Montenegro
    (no Web site)



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